Even after controlling for other risk factors such as smoking prevalence, socio-economic status and other demographic characteristics, the researchers found that every reduction of 10 micrograms per cubic meter of PM2.
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The connection between improved air quality and life expectancy was stronger in more urban and densely populated regions. Although the reasons for this were not clear, the researchers suggested that perhaps particulate matter in urban areas has a different composition than that in rural areas. The study strongly demonstrates that continuing to decrease levels of air pollution has a measurable and significant benefit for human health and life span.
Air pollution - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
However, the extent to which more recent regulatory actions have benefited public health [had remained] in question. Recycle paper, plastic, glass bottles, cardboard, and aluminum cans. This conserves energy and reduces production emissions. Keep woodstoves and fireplaces well maintained. You should also consider placing old wood stoves with EPA-certified models.
Plant deciduous trees in locations around your home to provide shade in the summer, but to allow light in the winter. Test your home for radon-a dangerous, radioactive gas that is odourless and tasteless. If the test shows elevated levels of radon, the problem can be fixed cost effectively.
Choose not to smoke in your home, especially if you have children. If you or your visitors must smoke, then smoke outside. They are environmentally friendly products. In the summer time, fill gas tank during cooler evening hours to cut down on evaporation.
Essay on Air Pollution: Causes, Effects and Control of Air Pollution
Replace gas tank cap tightly. Avoid waiting in long drive-thru lines, for example, at fast-food restaurants or banks. Park your car and go in. Check daily air quality forecasts, which tell how clean or polluted your air is, and the associated health concerns. Remove indoor asthma triggers from your home and avoid outdoor triggers in order to effectively control your asthma, to learn more about asthma triggers and ways to avoid them.
Minimize your sun exposure. Wear sun block and UV protection sunglasses. To find out about current forecasts of UV where you live, pollution prevention, monitoring and solution. Solution efforts on pollution are always a big problem. This is why prevention. Interventions are always a better way of controlling air pollution.
These prevention methods can either come from government laws or by individual actions. In many big cities, monitoring equipment have been installed at many points in the city. Authorities read them regularly to check the quality of air. Government or community level prevention — Governments throughout the world have already taken action against air pollution by introducing green energy. Some governments are investing in wind energy and solar energy, as well as other renewable energy, to minimize burning of fossil fuels, which cause heavy air pollution.
Governments are also forcing companies to be more responsible with their manufacturing activities, so that even though they still cause pollution, they are a lot controlled. Individual Level Prevention: Encourage your family to use the bus, train or bike when commuting. If we all do this, there will be less cars on road and less fumes. Use energy light, water, boiler, kettle and fire woods wisely. This is because lots of fossil fuels are burned to generate electricity, and so if we can cut down the use, we will also cut down the amount of pollution we create. Recycle and re-use things: This will minimize the dependence of producing new things.
Remember manufacturing industries create a lot of pollution, so if we can re-use things like shopping plastic bags, clothing, paper and bottles, it can help. Around 3 billion people cook and heat their homes using open fires and leaky stoves burning biomass wood, animal dung and crop waste and coal. Nearly 2 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use. Nearly 50 per cent of pneumonia deaths among children under five are due to particulate matter inhaled from indoor air pollution.
More than one million people a year die from chronic obstructive respiratory disease COPD that develops due to exposure to such indoor air pollution. Air pollution threatens the health of humans and other living beings in our planet. It creates smog and acid rain, causes cancer and respiratory diseases, reduces the ozone layer atmosphere and contributes to global warming. Toxic air pollutants, or air toxics, are known to cause or are suspected of causing cancer, birth defects, reproduction problems, and other serious illnesses.
Exposure to certain levels of some toxic air pollutants can cause difficulty in breathing, nausea or other illnesses. Exposure to certain toxic pollutants can even cause death. Some toxic air pollutants are of concern because they degrade slowly or not at all, as in the case of metals such as mercury or lead. These persistent air toxics can remain in the environment for a long time and can be transported great distances. Toxic air pollutants, like mercury or polychlorinated biphenyls, deposited onto soil or into lakes and streams persist and bio-accumulate in the environment.
They can affect living systems and food chains, and eventually affect people when they eat contaminated food. This can be particularly important for American Indians or other communities where cultural practices or subsistence life styles are prevalent. The majority of air toxics come from manmade sources, such as factory smokestack emissions and motor vehicle exhaust. Gasoline also contains air toxics. When you put fuel in your car, gases escape and form a vapor.
You can smell these vapors when you refuel your vehicle. When cars and trucks burn gasoline, toxic air pollutants are emitted from the tailpipe. Those air toxics are combustion products — chemicals that are produced when gasoline is burned. EPA is working with industries to develop cleaner- burning fuels and more efficient engines, and is taking steps to make sure that pollution control devices installed in motor vehicles work properly. EPA has issued requirements that are leading to cleaner-burning diesel engines, reducing releases of particle pollution and air toxics.
Air toxics are also released from industrial sources, such as chemical factories, refineries, and incinerators, and even from small industrial and commercial sources, such as dry cleaners and printing shops. Under the Clean Air Act, EPA has regulated both large and small sources of air toxics, but has mainly focused efforts on larger sources.
This approach did not work well. Between and , EPA established regulations for only seven pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments took a completely different approach to reducing toxic air pollutants. The Amendments required EPA to identify categories of industrial sources for listed toxic air pollutants and to take steps to reduce pollution by requiring sources to install controls or change production processes.
It makes good sense to regulate by categories of industries rather than one pollutant at a time, since many individual sources release more than one toxic chemical. Developing controls and process changes for industrial source categories can result in major reductions in releases of multiple pollutants at one time. EPA has published regulations covering a wide range of industrial categories, including chemical plants, incinerators, dry cleaners, and manufacturers of wood furniture.
Harmful air toxics from large industrial sources, such as chemical plants, petroleum refineries, and paper mills, have been reduced by nearly 70 percent. In most cases, EPA does not prescribe a specific control technology, but sets a performance level based on a technology or other practices already used by the better-controlled and lower emitting sources in an industry. EPA works to develop regulations that give companies as much flexibility as possible in deciding how they reduce their toxic air emissions-as long as the companies meet the levels required in the regulations. The Clean Air Act requires EPA to first set regulations using a technology-based or performance-based approach to reduce toxic emissions from industrial sources.
That assessment of remaining risk was initiated in the year for some of the industries covered by the technology-based standards. The chemical disaster that resulted in thousands of deaths in Bhopal, India, inspired sections of the Clean Air Act that require factories and other businesses to develop plans to prevent accidental releases of highly toxic chemicals. The Act also established the Chemical Safety Board, an independent agency that investigates and reports on accidental releases of toxic chemicals from industrial facilities.
The Board operates much like the National Transportation Safety Board, the agency that investigates airplane and train crashes. The Chemical Safety Board assembles the information necessary to determine how and why an accident involving toxic chemicals happened. The goal is to apply understanding of accidents to prevent other accidents involving toxic chemicals.
The Clean Air Act requires a number of studies to help EPA better characterize risks to human health and the environment from air toxics. Those studies provide information for rule making and support national and local efforts to address risks through pollution prevention and other voluntary programmes. The Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy includes local and community-based initiatives to reduce local toxic air emissions.
The primary goal of the strategy is to reduce public health risks from both indoor and outdoor sources of toxic air pollutants. Initiatives targeting emission reductions of persistent bio-accumulative toxics PBTs like mercury, DDT a pesticide banned in the United States , and dioxins. So man can only take preventive measures to reduce air pollution and it is high time for human to think for a better future life of living beings on this earth. Reduce the use of vehicles either by resorting to public transport for daily transportation or switching over from vehicles to other means such as cycling or walking.
If the use of vehicle is inevitable, make sure that you use it efficiently i. Buying fuel efficient vehicles is yet another option that you have. Several car manufacturers are using advanced technology to roll out vehicles, which minimize emissions of smoke and gaseous pollutants. Simple, but effective measure when it comes to vehicle pollution. Though indirectly saving energy by resorting to energy saving appliances and not wasting electricity will also help in carbine air pollution lesser the energy requirements lesser will be produced and thus turn, will lessen the amount of air pollution caused by power plants or furnaces.
Do not burn the wastes generated in your homes instead resort to other means of garbage disposal. The same rule implies when it comes to disposal of your garden wastes or home garbage. A better way out is to opt for traditional methods such as composting but putting them in a bigger pit.
You can also resort to technology advanced air pollution control equipment systems such as use of wet scrubbers to remove acid gases present in the atmospheric air. Use a thermostat in your homes so that your heater or air conditioner automatically gets switched off when it is not required.
Follow all the rules and regulations meant to stop environmental pollution and do try to spread awareness about such environmental hazards. To purify the polluted air my making up the deficiency of oxygen gas, every individual may be young or old must start plantations everywhere regularly and stop destruction of forest due to regular cutting off of trees. The researchers estimated exposure to air pollution during each trimester of pregnancy and during the first year of life among people with autism and people without autism, all of whom were participants in the California-based Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment CHARGE study.
In addition, the researchers used dispersion models to calculate how much air pollution the participants had likely been exposed to by local traffic. The study is the first to look at exposure not just to regional pollution, but also to that generated by local traffic. It follows a prior study by the same researchers that looked only at the correlation between autism risk and residence distance from a freeway.
We took into account how far away people lived from roads, meteorology such as which way the wind was blowing, how busy the road was, and other factors to study traffic- related pollution. We also examined data from air quality monitors, which measure pollution over a larger region that could come from traffic, industry, rail yards, or many other sources.
They are particle pollution often referred to as particulate matter , ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. If you need cheap, quick and professional writing, I definitely recommend Homeworkfor. I got two As and a B with them without a single revision! People come to us to get assistance with their academic tasks and get just that. It does not matter to us, whether you are too busy at work, concentrating on a passion project, or simply tired of a seemingly infinite flow of assignments.
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There is, of course, a limit on the number of pages even our best writers can produce with a pressing deadline, but as a rule, we manage to satisfy all the clients seeking urgent help. It is a common practice to charge more for such immediate papers, and our company is not an exception. However, you can be sure that you are getting a fine work for the price you are paying. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals.
Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. Particulates created from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.
The natural sources of air pollution are volcanic eruptions, forest tires, sea salt sprays, biological decay, photochemical oxidation of terpenes, marshes, extra-terrestrial bodies, pollen grains of flowers, spores etc. Radioactive minerals present in the earth crust are the sources of radioactivity in the atmosphere. Man-made sources. The main pollutants emitted are fly ash and SO 2.
Metallurgical plants also consume coal and produce similar pollutants. Fertilizer plants, smelters, textile mills, tanneries, refineries, chemicals industries, paper and pulp mills are other sources of air pollution.
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Automobile exhaust is another major source of air pollution. Heavy duty diesel vehicles spew more NO x and suspended particulate matter SPM than petrol vehicles which produce more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. The most important indoor air pollutant is radon gas. Radon gas and its radioactive daughters are responsible for a large number of lung cancer deaths each year.
Radon can be emitted from building materials like bricks, concrete, tiles etc. Radon is also present in ground water and natural gas and is emitted indoors while using them. Many houses in the under-developed and developing countries including India use fuels like coal, dung-cakes, wood and kerosene in their kitchens. Complete combustion of fuel produces carbon dioxide which may not be toxic. However, incomplete combustion produces the toxic gas carbon monoxide.
Coal contains varying amounts of sulphur which on burning produces sulphur dioxide. Fossil fuel burning produces black soot. These pollutants i. BAP is also found in cigarette smoke and is considered to cause cancer. A housewife using wood as fuel for cooking inhales BAP equivalent to 20 packets of cigarette a day.
Air pollution is a significant risk factor for multiple health conditions including respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions and premature death.
The effects of air pollution are obvious: rice crop yields in southern India are falling as brown clouds block out more and more sunlight.
The brilliant white of the famous Taj Mahal is slowly fading to a sickly yellow. Diesel engine exhaust fumes can cause cancer in humans and belong in the same potentially deadly category as asbestos, arsenic and mustard gas. Recent studies have linked acute exposure to ozone and death but little is known about the underlying pathways responsible for heart attack.
Indoor air pollution is the most important cause of chronic pulmonary disease. Pollution due to biomedical waste is likely to spread disease dangerous to life and making atmosphere noxious to health. Everyday pollutants such as smoke, emissions from automobiles, tobacco smoke and improper use of indoor heating devices could further compromise lung function Cystic fibrosis.
An additional to air pollution like high nitrogen oxide concentrations, cause various forms of cancer, including cervical cancer and brain cancer, SO 2 increases mortality from lung cancer cardiovascular deaths.
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Bangalore holds the title of being the asthma capital of the country. Carbon emissions have grown nine-fold over the past forty years. In this Industrial Age, with the ever-expanding consumption of hydrocarbon fuels and the resultant increase in carbon dioxide emissions, that greenhouse gas concentration have reached levels causing climate change. The most developed countries possess the capital, technological and human resources required for successful adaptation, while in the developing countries, a large proportion of the population is engaged in traditional farming that is particularly vulnerable to the changes in temperature, rainfall and extreme weather events associated with climate change.
A greenhouse is a structural building with different types of covering materials, such as a glass or plastic roof and frequently glass or plastic walls; it heats up because incoming visible solar radiation from the sun is absorbed by plants, soil, and other things inside the building. Air warmed by the heat from hot interior surfaces is retained in the building by the roof and wall.
In addition, the warmed structures and plants inside the greenhouse re-radiate some of their thermal energy in the infrared spectrum, to which glass is partly opaque, so some of this energy is also trapped inside the glasshouse. Thus, the glass used for a greenhouse works as a barrier to air flow, and its effect is to trap energy within the greenhouse.
The air that is warmed near the ground is prevented from rising indefinitely and flowing away. Solar radiation at the frequencies of visible light largely passes through the atmosphere to warm the planetary surface, which then emits this energy at the lower frequencies of infrared thermal radiation. Infrared radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases, which in turn re-radiate much of the energy to the surface and lower atmosphere.
The mechanism is named after the effect of solar radiation passing through glass and warming a greenhouse, but the way it retains heat is fundamentally different as a greenhouse works by reducing airflow, isolating the warm air inside the structure so that heat is not lost by convection. The mechanism that produces this difference between the actual surface temperature and the effective temperature is due to the atmosphere and is known as the greenhouse effect.
Greenhouse gases including most diatomic gases with two different atoms such as carbon monoxide, CO and all gases with three or more atoms—are able to absorb and emit infrared radiation. Another satellite for protection and development of the forest cover in India would be ready by Ozone is a gaseous layer in the stratosphere of atmosphere. The ozone layer is a concentration of ozone molecules in the stratosphere.
Overexposure to UV rays can lead to skin cancer, cataracts, and weakened immune systems. Increased UV can also lead to reduced crop yield and disruptions in the marine food chain. UV also has various harmful effects. Ozone depletion is referred to as the ozone hole. When sunlight returns to Antarctica in early spring, its ultraviolet rays trigger a chemical reaction that releases a chlorine-oxide free radical, which precipitates another reaction that breaks up the oxygen molecules that form the ozone layer.
Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halo- carbons increased. It is caused by the release of chlorofluorocarbons CFCs , hydro fluorocarbons HCFCs and other ozone-depleting substances ODS , which were used widely as refrigerants, insulating foams, and solvents. Although CFCs are heavier than air, they are eventually carried into the stratosphere in a process that can take as long as 2 to 5 years.
Measurements of CFCs in the stratosphere are made from balloons, aircraft, and satellites. The latter phenomenon In addition to these well-known stratospheric phenomena. Ozone hole formation at polar region differ from that of mid-latitude thinning, but the most important process in both is catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic halogens. The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere is photo dissociation of man-made halocarbon refrigerants CFCs. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere after being emitted at the surface. Other chemical substances that damage the ozone layer are methyl bromide a pesticide , halons fire extinguishers and methyl chloroform an organic solvent.
As methyl bromide and halons are broken apart, they release bromine atoms, which are 60 times more destructive to ozone molecules than chlorine atoms. Most of the ozone that is destroyed is in the lower stratosphere, in contrast to the much smaller ozone depletion through homogeneous gas phase reactions, which occurs primarily in the upper stratosphere. Ozone depletion would change all of the effects of UVB the higher energy UV radiation absorbed by ozone on human health, both positive and negative. UVB is generally accepted to be a contributory factor to skin cancer and to produce Vitamin D.
In addition, increased surface UV leads to increased tropospheric ozone, which is a health risk to humans. The most common forms of skin cancer in humans, basal and squamous cell carcinomas have been strongly linked to UVB exposure. These cancers are relatively mild and rarely fatal, although the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma. Vitamin D is produced in the skin by ultraviolet light.
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Thus, higher UVB exposure raises human vitamin D in those deficient in it. An increase of UV radiation would be expected to affect crops. A number of economically important species of plants, such as rice, depend on cyanobacteria residing on their roots for the retention of nitrogen. Cyanobacteria are sensitive to UV radiation and would be affected by its increase. Acid rain refers to a downpour that has been made acidic by pollutants in the atmosphere.
Acid deposition mainly caused by the release of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide during fossil fuel combustion.
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