Photographs, data sets, tables, graphs, and other images are often added into projects or papers to promote or aid understanding. They provide meaningful visuals for the reader. If the illustration or visual image does not enhance the quality of the paper, do not include it in the project.
Tables and illustrations should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. For an image to be significant and easily identifiable, place it as close as possible to the text in the project where it is discussed. It is not acceptable to simply place an image in a project without including identifiable information. All images must include information about its origin.
In the text of the project or paper, place a parentheses at the end of the line where the figure is discussed, and include the label. White Studio. There is further good information here , including how to create an MLA format citation for images. This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes.
Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table. In MLA format, the first table seen in the project is labeled as Table 1. The second table in the project is Table 2, and so on. Create a title for the table and place it below the label.
The numbers reflect students who are enrolled full-time. The information included above and below any images or table should be double spaced, similar to the rest of the project or paper. Musical scores need to be labeled as well. When including a musical score in a project, do not label it as a figure or table. Instead, label musical scores with Ex. This label should be placed below the musical score. Next to the abbreviation Ex. The first musical score in the project should be labeled as Ex.
The second musical score found in an assignment should be labeled as Ex. If possible, provide a caption. The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration.
If the information below the sheet music includes enough information about the source, it is not necessary to include the full reference at the end of the assignment. Lists created using MLA essay format look different than a grocery list or any other type of vertical listing of items. Items in a list are formatted in horizontal order, rather than the traditional vertical style. Here is an example of how a list may look in a research project or assignment:.
How should a title page be formatted in MLA style? - SNHU Library Frequently Asked Questions
Notice the items are listed horizontally, not vertically. This is important to keep in mind when including lists in a project. Place a colon between the introductory sentence and the list. There are also times when a colon is not included. Do not place a colon before the first list item if the list is part of the sentence. Here is an example of how a list may look in a research project or assignment when the list is part of the sentence.
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Containers are what hold the source. Is it all necessary? Check out Section 15 above to learn how to arrange the references on the page. Our MLA formatter will help you create citations quickly and easily! Some professors or instructors will provide guidance on how to secure hard copies of projects. If your instructor does not provide you with any expectations or guidance, a simple staple in the top left corner should suffice. If a stapler is not available, some instructors allow paper or binder clips. Do not fold the top left corner down to secure the pages together.
The page could easily unfold, causing a mess of papers. While binders and plastic holders are cute, in reality, they add bulk to a professor or instructor who may like to take the papers home for grading purposes. Keep the binding simple and clean. Staples work best, and binder and paper clips are the next best option.
As always, follow any instructions your professor or teacher may provide. The guidelines found here are simply recommendations. Editing and proofreading your assignment prior to submission is an incredibly important step in the research process. Editing involves checking the paper for the following items:. Your instructor may ask you to submit a hard copy, or submit it electronically via email or through a course management system. Begin the MLA header one inch from the top and left margins. The MLA format heading and the entire paper should be double spaced.
Privatization of Prisons in Texas. The privatization of governmental services has increased dramatically in the past decade as local, state, and federal agencies have searched for ways to cut costs while still meeting their mandated responsibility to provide various public services. This privatizing trend has particularly affected the criminal justice system. Since the early s, privatized correctional facilities have increased significantly, nationally and statewide. This policy has far-ranging consequences not only within the criminal justice system, but as an instructive example for government officials when considering the costs and benefits of privatization as a public policy option.
By , thirty states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico had privately-operated correctional facilities Austin and Coventry 4. This movement has incited considerable debate and controversy, mainly because prison privatization calls for giving the private sector direct control over the lives of a captive human population.
Surprisingly, there has been little objective and concrete analysis of the privatization of prisons in the United States. This is probably for two reasons: first, ideological arguments on the matter have pushed out substantive research, and second, because this trend has only recently accelerated in the U.
However, case studies and statistics at the state level are more accessible. With capacity for over 30, prisoners in 43 facilities, the state of Texas has privatized more of its prison system than any state in the nation McDonald and Patten Jr. Public policy concerning the criminal justice system has become more daunting and important in the last decade.
According to the most recent U. Department of Justice survey, slightly over 2.
In comparison, in , 1. At the same time, the growth of privately operated correctional facilities has increased significantly in this country. Private prisons now hold 95, inmates in this country, which is 6. In Texas, 16, inmates 10 percent of its prison population are held in private facilities, about 10, more than the next highest state. These current statistics show that while state governments have been forced to manage and operate overcrowded and over-capacity prisons at considerable costs, many have turned to the private sector to operate prisons McDonald and Patten Jr.
According to the General Accounting Office, prison operating costs have grown steadily since , increasing almost percent since based on inflation-adjusted dollars Austin and Coventry 1. Prison privatization started in the early s, ostensibly to ease the burden on taxpayers by offering financial relief to private companies to run state prisons. That year, Corrections Corporation of America set up the first privately-operated prison in Tennessee. Since then, the number of private correctional facility firms has grown to 14 Austin and Coventry 3.
The privatization of prisons occurs in two ways. First, state government can contract out or outsource specific services in a correctional facility to a private company after a bidding process. Second, and more radically, private companies build their own privately-managed prisons and contract with state governments to house their inmates.
This latter approach, giving private correctional facility firms wide latitude over inmates, is taken in the Texas criminal justice system. Due to its length, the remainder of this sample paper is omitted. Austin, James, and Garry Coventry. Emerging Issues on Privatized Prisons. Bureau of Justice Assistance, Feb. Beck, Allen J. Prisoners in Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. Abt Associates, 15 Sept. Darling, Michael. Need another sample paper to peek at? Check out one of our recent blog posts, added in its entirety below. Take the guesswork out of properly formatting your paper and check out our helpful visual resources below.
Lewis and J. The abbreviated MLA paper below linked here without annotations is about J. For starters, the essay is in MLA format. That means it follows the style manual of the Modern Language Association, which tells you how to format the paper itself and every source you cite.
Pay special attention to the works cited page. We only used one type of source books , but both citations are correct according to the 8th edition of MLA , published in You can use this model to write essays for any class using MLA format. Learn more here. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.
Get Started. Formatting Overview There are various sections in this guide. Paper Choice While many professors, instructors, and publications allow electronic submission, some prefer printed, hard copies of papers. See more information below. Here is an example of a running head that might be seen in the top right corner of a research paper: Peterson 7 The running head is placed half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin of the page. General tips to keep in mind: Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the page number.
To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page. Do not place p. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Margins Use one-inch margins around the entire page. Paragraphs Indent the first word in every paragraph. Quotations Quotes are added into assignments to help defend an argument, prove a point, add emphasis, or simply liven up a project. In a block quote, which is used when a large quote, of 4 lines or more, is added into a project.
Using footnotes and endnotes: The Modern Language Association generally promotes the use of references as described in the sections above, but footnotes and endnotes are also acceptable forms of references to use in your paper.
Here are a few scenarios when it may seem appropriate to use this type of referencing: When you are referring to a number of various sources, by various authors, in a section of your paper. In this situation, it is a good idea to use a footnote or endnote to share information for parenthetical references. This will encourage the reader to stay focused on the text of the research paper, instead of having to read through all of the reference information.
These types of footnotes and endnotes are helpful when explaining translations, adding background information, or sharing counterexamples to research. Paraphrases Paraphrases are created when text or speech from another source are added into a project, but the writer chooses to summarize them and weave in his or her own writing and writing style. Stay foolish. Read the text carefully and make sure you fully comprehend its meaning. A writer can only develop a well-written paraphrase if the information has been fully grasped and understood. After analyzing and completely understanding the original text, put it to the side.
Do not simply substitute words in the original text with synonyms. Show off and demonstrate your ability to process the original information, connect it to the content in your paper, and write it in your own individual and unique writing style. Include an in-text reference next to the paraphrase. All paraphrases include references, similar to direct quotes. See section 6 of this guide to learn how to properly attribute your paraphrased information. Give yourself a pat on the back! Paraphrasing is an important part of the research and writing process.
Spacing MLA research paper format requires that the entire research paper or MLA format essay includes double-spaced lines. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface.
MLA General Format
Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. To create a header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin.
Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Punctuation Here are a few guidelines to keep in mind in relation to punctuation marks. Abbreviations Abbreviations are commonly used in many source types including websites, blog posts, books, and journal articles.
United States should be US, not U. Digital video disc should be DVD, not D. Example: She rented out the beach house from May through September. Other abbreviations that are perfectly acceptable to use in a bibliography in MLA format not the body of a project include: p. Publishers One of the quirkiest things about this particular style is how publisher names are structured on the final page of references.
Numbers Use of Numerals If the project calls for frequent use of numbers such as a scientific study or statistics , use numerals that precede measurements. Arabic Numbers When including a number in a paper, spell out the number if it can be written as one word such as six or two words such as sixty two. Instead of: children were found in the warehouse, some malnourished and diseased. Please set a username for yourself. People will see it as Author Name with your public flash cards.
Set the Margins Set the top and bottom margins at one inch and the left and right margins at one inch. Here's the format: LastName Blank Line Blank Line Page Number Make sure that you know the specific requirements of your paper when setting page numbers because sometime a number is not required on the first page.
Line Spacing Set line spacing to double space. Other General Formatting Requirements While MLA formatting is not as strict as some other citation styles, MLA does require that you use a legible font and keep the font a certain size. Before you begin to write your paper, make sure you intend to use a uniform heading plan throughout the whole of your document. Example: If you decide to label the first part of your paper "Heading 1" each subsequent heading must be labeled accordingly in sequential order.
In-Text Citations in MLA Format Like all other style formatting guidelines, MLA requires the use of in text citations for work that is paraphrased or quoted within a paper in order to attribute the work. To directly quote another author in your paper your parenthetical citation would appear in one of the following ways: AuthorName stated the fact that "insert very interesting fact" My paper includes "this very interesting quote" Author AuthorName extensively explored the concept of this very interesting idea Author Is Known My paper is improved by Johnson's Name's description of the idea as "very interesting" My paper has been described as "very interesting" Johnson My paper has been described by Johnson as "very interesting" Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" Johnson 3 The information in these examples will correspond to an entry in the Works Cited section at the end of the paper formatted as follows: Johnson, FirstName.
Name of Book. City: Publisher, Year. No Known Author Cite the article name and page number I am making my paper more interesting by including this referenced idea that "the sky is blue Month, Year. Author, The information in this example will correspond to an entry in the Works Cited section at the end of the paper formatted as follows: Author, A.
Author, B. Works by Multiple Authors If three or less authors, mention all three in the parenthetical citation. For example: Author, Writer, and Doe argue that this concept is quite interesting The authors state "this concept is quite interesting" Author, writer, and Doe The information in these examples will correspond to an entry in the Works Cited section at the end of the paper formatted as follows: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Doe, Doe's First Name. Electronic Sources The name of the author should be cited in-text if known. For example: The easiest way to prepare the ground for planting is to add a rich soil conditioner AuthorLastName, "Name of Article".
The information in this example will correspond to an entry in the Works Cited section at the end of the paper formatted as follows: AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName. Works Cited As the final page for your research paper, you will need to create a works cited page. For instance, for the quote for Johnson in the "Author Is Known" section above, the entry on your Works Cited page would look like this: Johnson, First name. Country: Name of publisher, Date. Print The Works Cited page must be listed in alphabetical order and double spaced just the same as the rest of the paper.
See similar articles. YourDictionary definition and usage example. Link to this page. MLA Format Examples.
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