Essay on graves disease


Graves' Disease Essay

This test tells how much iodine the thyroid gland is using. The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormone. Higher levels of iodine suggest Graves' disease. The RAIU test can also help rule out other possible causes of an overactive thyroid gland. Antibody tests. These blood tests look for antibodies that suggest Graves' disease. How is Graves' disease treated? There are three main treatments for Graves' disease: 7 Antithyroid medicine. These medicines keep the thyroid gland from making too much thyroid hormone.

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They are often given to patients before thyroid surgery or radioiodine therapy. You cannot take MMI in the early stages of pregnancy, because it may hurt your developing baby. Radioactive iodine RAI.


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RAI is a type of iodine that damages the thyroid gland by giving it radiation. The RAI destroys thyroid cells so that your thyroid gland cannot make as much thyroid hormone. This cures the overactive thyroid gland, but it can lead to underactive thyroid gland. If this happens, you will need to take thyroid hormone for the rest of your life. Surgery to remove all or most of the thyroid.

As with RAI, surgery cures overactive thyroid but can lead to underactive thyroid. You will need to take thyroid hormone to replace the needed thyroid hormone that your body can no longer make. What could happen if Graves' disease is not treated? Without treatment, Graves' disease can lead to other health problems, including: Thyroid storm, a very rare, life-threatening condition caused by too much thyroid hormone that suddenly increases your heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature to dangerously high levels.

A stressful event, such as trauma, surgery, or infection, may trigger thyroid storm. Heart problems, such as irregular heartbeat arrhythmia , atrial fibrillation, and heart failure 8 Bone loss that can lead to osteoporosis. Bone loss after menopause raises a woman's risk for weak and fragile bones that break easily. Graves' disease can speed up bone loss. How does Graves' disease affect my chances of getting pregnant? How does pregnancy affect the thyroid? How does Graves' disease affect pregnancy?

Untreated or poorly treated Graves' disease can lead to problems during pregnancy, such as: Preeclampsia Premature birth Placental abruption Miscarriage Heart failure It also can lead to serious problems for your baby, such as: Fast heart rate Low birth weight Stillbirth Birth defects Thyroid problems. How is Graves' disease treated during pregnancy?

Can I breastfeed if I take medicine to treat Graves' disease? Did we answer your question about Graves' disease? Girgis, C. Current Concepts in Graves' Disease. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism; 2 3 : — Janegova, A. The role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Endokrynologia Polska; 66 2 : — Stan, M. Risk factors for development or deterioration of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

Thyroid; 20 7 : — Tanda, M.

Prevalence and natural history of Graves' orbitopathy in a large series of patients with newly diagnosed Graves' hyperthyroidism seen at a single center. Quintono-Moro, A. High prevalence of infertility among women with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. International Journal of Endocrinology. American Thyroid Association. FAQ: Thyroid disease and pregnancy.

Burch, H. Management of Graves Disease: A Review. JAMA; 23 : — Uchida, T. Superior thyroid artery mean peak systolic velocity for the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in Japanese patients. Endocrine Journal; 57 5 : — Park, S. The adaptation and relationship of FGF to changes in mineral metabolism in Graves' disease. Clinical Endocrinology Oxford ; 66 6 : — Hudson, R.


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  5. Testicular function in hyperthyroidism. Journal of Andrology; — Trokoudes, K. Infertility and thyroid disorders. Mandel, S. The use of antithyroid drugs in pregnancy and lactation. Graves' disease resources. Related information Lupus. Autoimmune diseases.

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    Essay on Graves Disease and Hyperthroidism -- health, imbalance, thyroi

    Many apparent symptoms in otherwise healthy individuals, who do not have thyroid disease, often lead the doctor astray. For example, nervousness is common in many people. Thus, clinical findings may be unmistakable or easily confused with other disorders. It can also cause a goiter or enlargement of the thyroid gland.

    Luckily, thyroid blood tests often make the diagnosis easier, especially detection of antibodies against the thyroid receptor.

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    However, the thyroid hormones can go up and down and thus the disease can go on for years undetected. Last week, Dr. The authors also pointed out that animal studies have shown that vitamin D-like drugs inhibit inflammation in thyroid cells and that other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, inflammatory bowel disease, MS, and type-1 diabetes are closely linked to vitamin D deficiency. Our in-home vitamin D test kit is easy, affordable, and an accurate way to find out your Vitamin D status.

    Writing an essay in English can be a challenge, especially if you are beginning to learn the language or do not yet fully master it. To help you meet this challenge, we leave you a series of […]. Sep Graves' disease is an unfavorable condition that results from irregular activation of the thyroid gland by a material in the blood known as thyroid stimulating immunoglobins TSIs that bind and activate thyrotropin receptors.

    The thyroid gland can be found in the low neck of the guitar region, below the Adams' apple. The amount of thyroid hormones i. These human hormones are immediately released into the bloodstream. When more of the hormones are released brings about hyperthyroidism resulting in Graves' disease. Iodine performs an important role in synthesis of thyroid human hormones.

    Any alteration in the uptake of iodine can lead to hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease produces auto-antibodies that bind the receptor for TSH and imitate the standard action of TSH, activating adenylate cyclase and resulting in development of the thyroid hormones. The vehicle antibodies aren't regulated, and therefore they over promote the thyroid.

    Thus these auto-antibodies are called long-acting thyroid-stimulating LATS antibodies. The main cause of Graves' disease is hyperthyroidism. Graves' hyperthyroidism results from the production of unique IgG antibodies that bind to and stimulate the thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH receptor on the surface of thyroid follicular skin cells. This activation stimulates follicular cell progress, creating diffuse thyroid enhancement and increased creation of thyroid human hormones with a rise in the portion of triiodothyronine T3 in accordance with thyroxine T4 [6].

    The Look of Graves

    The hyperthyroidism of GD is induced by circulating TSHR antibodies Tabs that concentrate on this receptor on thyroid follicular cells and stimulate abnormal production of thyroid. The emergence of this autoimmune process is most likely due to an underlying hereditary susceptibility with superimposed environmental factors[7]. Environmental causes include stressful life events, infection, contact with high dosages of iodine and recent childbirth. The main characteristic of Graves' disease are immunologically mediated hyperthyroidism, presence of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, myxoedema, and severe cardiac results.

    Other medical indications include such as anxiety, breast enlargement in men possible , dual vision, eyeballs that stick out exophthalmos , goiter, increased desire for foods, increased perspiration, insomnia, Unusual menstrual durations in women, fast or abnormal heartbeat palpitations or arrhythmia, weight loss rarely, weight gain [4, 9]. Risk factors for Graves' disease are associated with other autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo, rheumatoid arthritis, Addison's disease, type 1 diabetes, pernicious anemia, and lupus.

    Essay on Graves' Disease

    Poorly cared for Graves' disease during being pregnant can cause problems for the girl such as preterm delivery, miscarriage, heart failing, and placental abruption. Poorly treated Graves' disease can cause health problems for a fetus or baby such as preterm delivery, low labor and birth weight, thyroid problems. Blood tests are ideal way of diagnosing Graves ' disease [10].

    The levels of thyroid hormone are often determined by blood vessels exams and also whether the hormone development is normal or abnormal. The amount of blood TSH can be handy for detection of hyperthyroidism. A hyperthyroidism can be called supplementary hyperthyroidism when a pituitary tumor sometimes appears. Thyroid hormone is abnormally high in case of supplementary hyperthyroidism. The thyroid skin cells produce a proteins called thyroglobulin when a thyroid cancers is suspected. This is also used as a tumor marker.

    Antithyroid drugs are drugs specially used in hyperthyroidism condition. The medicine should be chosen under several guidelines like selection of drug, dose, duration of therapy to what amount. A few examples of such antithyroid drugs are Carbimazole, Propylthiouracil and Methimazole. These drugs are used for Randomized handled Trails.

    The method of action of the drugs is that they inhibit the formation of thyroid hormone. In addition they become immunosuppressant and anti inflamanants. Propylthiouracil respond more positively of the inhibition activity of T4 to dynamic T3. However Methimazole has its own advantages. The dosage of thionamides should only independent on individual, the pace of response to the therapy.

    Increase in the dose can lead to severe side results.

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    The duration of the treatment can be extended to calendar months [13]. The downside of this remedy is that it offers an extremely high relapse period. Glucocorticoids can even be used as it can help in the inhibition of change of T4 to T3 in the periphery, thus minimizing the level of thyroid hormone in case there is hyperthyroidism.

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