There is no follow up to the findings. Descriptive Design Definition and Purpose Descriptive research designs help provide answers to the questions of who, what, when, where, and how associated with a particular research problem; a descriptive study cannot conclusively ascertain answers to why. The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment. True experiments, whilst giving analyzable data, often adversely influence the normal behavior of the subject. Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitatively research designs, the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing quantitatively.
If the limitations are understood, they can be a useful tool in developing a more focused study. Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to important recommendations. Appoach collects a large amount of data for detailed analysis. The results from a descriptive research can not be used to discover a definitive answer or to disprove a hypothesis. Because descriptive designs often utilize observational methods [as opposed to quantitative methods], the results cannot be replicated.
The descriptive function of research is heavily dependent on instrumentation for measurement and observation. Experimental Design Definition and Purpose A blueprint of the procedure that enables the researcher to maintain control over all factors that may affect the result of an experiment. Experimental research allows the researcher to control the situation.
Experimental research designs support the ability to limit alternative explanations and to infer direct causal relationships in the study. Approach provides the highest level of evidence for single studies. The design is artificial, and results may not generalize well to the real world.
The artificial settings of experiments may alter subject behaviors or responses. Experimental designs can be costly if special equipment or facilities are needed. Some research problems cannot be studied using an experiment because of ethical or technical reasons. Exploratory Design Definition and Purpose An exploratory design is conducted about a research problem when there are few or no earlier studies to refer to.
The goals of exploratory research are intended to produce the following possible insights: Familiarity with basic details, settings and concerns. Well grounded picture of the situation being developed. Generation of new ideas and assumption, development of tentative theories or hypotheses. Determination about whether a study is feasible in the future. Issues get refined for more systematic investigation and formulation of new research questions.
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Direction for future research and techniques get developed. Design is a useful approach for gaining background information on a particular topic. Exploratory research is flexible and can address research questions of all types what, why, how. Provides an opportunity to define new terms and clarify existing concepts. Exploratory research is often used to generate formal hypotheses and develop more precise research problems. Exploratory studies help establish research priorities.
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Exploratory research generally utilizes small sample sizes and, thus, findings are typically not generalizable to the population at large. The exploratory nature of the research inhibits an ability to make definitive conclusions about the findings. The research process underpinning exploratory studies is flexible but often unstructured, leading to only tentative results that have limited value in decision-making.
Design lacks rigorous standards applied to methods of data gathering and analysis because one of the areas for exploration could be to determine what method or methodologies could best fit the research problem. Historical Design Definition and Purpose The purpose of a historical research design is to collect, verify, and synthesize evidence from the past to establish facts that defend or refute your hypothesis. The historical research design is unobtrusive; the act of research does not affect the results of the study.
The historical approach is well suited for trend analysis.
Historical records can add important contextual background required to more fully understand and interpret a research problem. There is no possibility of researcher-subject interaction that could affect the findings. Historical sources can be used over and over to study different research problems or to replicate a previous study. The ability to fulfill the aims of your research are directly related to the amount and quality of documentation available to understand the research problem.
Since historical research relies on data from the past, there is no way to manipulate it to control for contemporary contexts. Interpreting historical sources can be very time consuming. The sources of historical materials must be archived consistentally to ensure access. Original authors bring their own perspectives and biases to the interpretation of past events and these biases are more difficult to ascertain in historical resources. Due to the lack of control over external variables, historical research is very weak with regard to the demands of internal validity. It rare that the entirety of historical documentation needed to fully address a research problem is available for interpretation, therefore, gaps need to be acknowledged.
Longitudinal Design Definition and Purpose A longitudinal study follows the same sample over time and makes repeated observations. Longitudinal data allow the analysis of duration of a particular phenomenon. Enables survey researchers to get close to the kinds of causal explanations usually attainable only with experiments. The design permits the measurement of differences or change in a variable from one period to another [i.
Longitudinal studies facilitate the prediction of future outcomes based upon earlier factors.
The data collection method may change over time. Maintaining the integrity of the original sample can be difficult over an extended period of time. It can be difficult to show more than one variable at a time. This design often needs qualitative research to explain fluctuations in the data.
A longitudinal research design assumes present trends will continue unchanged. It can take a long period of time to gather results. There is a need to have a large sample size and accurate sampling to reach representativness. Observational Design Definition and Purpose This type of research design draws a conclusion by comparing subjects against a control group, in cases where the researcher has no control over the experiment. Observational studies are usually flexible and do not necessarily need to be structured around a hypothesis about what you expect to observe data is emergent rather than pre-existing.
The researcher is able to collect a depth of information about a particular behavior. Can reveal interrelationships among multifaceted dimensions of group interactions. You can generalize your results to real life situations. Observational research is useful for discovering what variables may be important before applying other methods like experiments.
Writing an Education Research Paper
Observation researchd esigns account for the complexity of group behaviors. Reliability of data is low because seeing behaviors occur over and over again may be a time consuming task and difficult to replicate. In observational research, findings may only reflect a unique sample population and, thus, cannot be generalized to other groups. There can be problems with bias as the researcher may only "see what they want to see. Sources or subjects may not all be equally credible. Any group that is studied is altered to some degree by the very presence of the researcher, therefore, skewing to some degree any data collected the Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle.
Philosophical Design Definition and Purpose Understood more as an broad approach to examining a research problem than a methodological design, philosophical analysis and argumentation is intended to challenge deeply embedded, often intractable, assumptions underpinning an area of study. These overarching tools of analysis can be framed in three ways: Ontology -- the study that describes the nature of reality; for example, what is real and what is not, what is fundamental and what is derivative?
Epistemology -- the study that explores the nature of knowledge; for example, on what does knowledge and understanding depend upon and how can we be certain of what we know? Axiology -- the study of values; for example, what values does an individual or group hold and why? How are values related to interest, desire, will, experience, and means-to-end? And, what is the difference between a matter of fact and a matter of value?
Can provide a basis for applying ethical decision-making to practice. Functions as a means of gaining greater self-understanding and self-knowledge about the purposes of research. Brings clarity to general guiding practices and principles of an individual or group. Philosophy informs methodology. Refine concepts and theories that are invoked in relatively unreflective modes of thought and discourse. Beyond methodology, philosophy also informs critical thinking about epistemology and the structure of reality metaphysics.
Offers clarity and definition to the practical and theoretical uses of terms, concepts, and ideas. Limited application to specific research problems [answering the "So What? Analysis can be abstract, argumentative, and limited in its practical application to real-life issues. There are limitations in the use of metaphor as a vehicle of philosophical analysis.
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There can be analytical difficulties in moving from philosophy to advocacy and between abstract thought and application to the phenomenal world. Sequential Design Definition and Purpose Sequential research is that which is carried out in a deliberate, staged approach [i.
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Components of a Research Report
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Writing an Education Research Paper :. The following guide contains tips on writing a research paper in Education. Customary Parts of an Education Research Paper There is no one right style or manner for writing an education paper. Contains the paper's title, the author's name, address, phone number, e-mail, and the day's date. Abstract Not every education paper requires an abstract. However, for longer, more complex papers abstracts are particularly useful.
Often only to words, the abstract generally provides a broad overview and is never more than a page. It describes the essence, the main theme of the paper. It includes the research question posed, its significance, the methodology, and the main results or findings. The abstract provides a concise and comprehensive summary of a research report. Your style should be brief, but not using note form. Look at examples in journal articles. It should aim to explain very briefly about words the following:.
What does it all mean? Mention implications of your findings if appropriate. The purpose of the introduction is to explain where your hypothesis comes from. Two or three studies is sufficient. This means the studies outlined should lead logically into your aims and hypotheses. If your hypothesis is unlikely, why are you testing it?
AIMS: The aims should not appear out of thin air, the preceding review of psychological literature should lead logically into the aims. Use previously cited research to explain your expectations. Later these expectations are formally stated as the hypotheses. Name the dependent variables and make sure it's operationalized. Identify any controls used, e. Identify the target population refer to a geographic location and type of sample. Say how you obtained your sample e. Give relevant details, e. Describe the materials used, e.
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Describe in sufficient detail to allow for replication of findings. The results section of a paper usually present the descriptive statistics followed by inferential statistics.
Related parts of a research design paper
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