This would suggest there is a strong case for genetics being involved with …show more content…. Gottesman also supports the genetic link, showing schizophrenia is more common in close biological relatives of a schizophrenic.
However genetic explanations cannot account for the patients who have no family history of the disorder. Biochemical factors are used to suggest that schizophrenia is caused by abnormal neurotransmitter activity. The main aspect of this explanation is the Dopamine hypothesis. Schizophrenia has been linked to with high levels of dopamine in the brain.
Biological factors in schizophrenia. Structural and functional aspects.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter associated with attention. Schizophrenics seem to have an increased number of D2 dopamine receptors on receiving neurons. This theory is support by the fact that Phenothiazines bind with D2 receptors and reduce positive symptoms. However excess dopamine can only explain some types of schizophrenia, usually positive rather than negative. Newer antipsychotic also affect levels of other neurotransmitters.
This theory can also not explain why some schizophrenics have long periods of remission. Show More. Read More. Psychiatrists at several mental hospitals were told to expect psuedopatients over a period of several months. Alternatively, validity refers to the extent that the classification system such as DSM measures what it claims to measure.
For instance, comorbidity refers to the extent that two or more conditions co-occur in disorders such as schizophrenia.
One way to avoid the issue of comorbidity is to use first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia when diagnosing e. However, Bentall et al claimed that many of the first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia are also found in other disorders such as depression and bipolar.
This makes it difficult to separate schizophrenia as a distinct disorder because there is crossover in symptoms; therefore schizophrenia is not a distinct condition. Allardyce et al claimed that the symptoms used to characterise schizophrenia do not define a specific disorder because they can be found in other categories of psychosis described in DSM and therefore there should just be a psychotic spectrum.
Another aspect of validity is predictive validity which demonstrates the validity of a diagnosis by demonstrating that it can predict scores on some criterion measure. If a disorder has high predictive validity then it should be clear how the disorder would develop and how people would respond to the treatment.
Though research has found low predictive validity for schizophrenia. This much variation in the prognosis suggests that the original diagnosis lacked predictive validity, meaning that the diagnosis was not helpful in dealing with the course of schizophrenia.
Research has shown that other factors may be more influential on the ultimate outcome of having schizophrenia.
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- Outline and Evaluate Two or More Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia..
- The Biological And Psychological Explanations Of Schizophrenia.
For example, it may be linked to gender Malmberg et al and psychosocial factors, such as social skills, academic achievement and family tolerance of schizophrenia behaviour Harrison et al Exogenous zeitgebers are external cues or time-givers that help to keep circadian 24 hour rhythms in tune through entrainment. Therefore exogenous zeitgebers are crucial in keeping the biological rhythms in time with that of the changing external environment. The dominant zeitgeber in humans is light which enters into the retina and is transferred through the optical nerve to the SCN. This then stimulates the release of hormones such as cortisol and melatonin the pineal gland, thus maintaining our sleep-wake circadian cycle.
The importance of exogenous zeitgebers and the role of artificial light upon circadian rhythms was empirically supported by Boivin et al who found that circadian rhythms can be entrained by ordinary dim lighting.
Outline and Evaluate One Biological Therapy for Schizophrenia (12 marks).
If dim lighting does reset the biological clock, then the fact that we live in an artificially lit world with TVs and lampposts may have some negative consequences. For instance, Stevens suggests that exposure to artificial lights disrupt the circadian sleep-wake cycle and ultimately explain why women in industrialised well-lit societies are more likely to develop breast cancer.
Furthermore, the existence of the exogenous zeitgeber is supported by Miles et al who presented the case study of a man blind from birth who had a sleep-wake cycle of This shows the importance of light as an exogenous zeitgeber over other external times cues because by not being able to process light, the internal endogenous pacemaker was stuck on the timing of 25 hours, regardless what was going on in the outside world, therefore providing evidence for the importance of light. Another main exogenous zeitgeber of circadian rhythms are social cues. Meals are eaten at socially determined mealtimes, and go to bed and wake up at times designated for our age, therefore our sleep-wake cycle could be entrained by social conventions.
For example, Davidson found the zeitgeber for cells in the liver and heart is likely to be mealtimes because these cells are reset by eating. Luce and Segall showed how social cues as zietgebers have an important role in circadian rhythms. In the Arctic Circle people still maintain a constant sleep pattern of 7 hours a night, despite having 6 months of darkness in the winter and light in the summer. In these conditions, knowing it is either day or night time by looking at a clock , even in the absence of proper light conditions, is likely to help the rhythm to be maintained and fit in the outside world, supporting the view that social cues are important in sleep wake cycles also.
On the other hand, the role of the exogenous zietgeber on its own can run the circadian rhythm is a reductionist explanation because it fails to consider the influence of endogenous pacemakers. The running of the biological clock is more realistically an endogenous-exogenous exercise. He is watching his own day at work. The TV self is more ambitious, more of everything.
The home self continues day after day, watching his TV self Strong Essays words 4. I did not realize the significance of the changes at the time, and I think others denied them, but looking back I can see that they were the earliest signs of illness. I became increasingly withdrawn and sullen. I felt alienated and lonely and hated everyone.
I felt as if there were a huge gap between me and the rest of the world; everybody seemed so distant from me. Generally if you have schizophrenia you cut out of contact with real world reality. People who are suffering from schizophrenia think and act in their own world, which sets them apart from the society around them Schizophrenia is the most common and the most potentially sever and disabling of the psychosis, a term encompassing several severe mental disorders that result in the loss of contact with reality along with major personality derangements.
Schizophrenia Sort | Psychology | tutor2u
Schizophrenia patients experience delusions, hallucinations and often lose thought process. Schizophrenia affects an estimated one percent of the population in every country of the world Strong Essays words 3. Symptoms of schizophrenia can be positive, which occur during the active phase, and negative, which are present before the onset of the disorder Schizophrenia is a psychiatry disorder where several structural disturbances occur in the brain.
It normally takes place in the temporal and frontal lobes, changing the neural systems and affecting the neurotransmitters in charge of controlling the functioning that takes place in these areas.
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